SIRTURO® exposure may be reduced during co-administration with inducers of CYP3A4 and increased during co-administration with inhibitors of CYP3A4.
Due to the possibility of a reduction of the therapeutic effect of bedaquiline because of the decrease in systemic exposure, co-administration of strong CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifamycins (i.e., rifampin, rifapentine and rifabutin), or moderate CYP3A4 inducers should be avoided during treatment with SIRTURO®.
Due to the potential risk of adverse reactions to SIRTURO® because of the increase in systemic exposure, prolonged co-administration of SIRTURO® and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole or itraconazole, for more than 14 consecutive days should be avoided unless the benefit outweighs the risk. Appropriate clinical monitoring for SIRTURO®-related adverse reactions is recommended.
Other Antimicrobial Medications
No dose-adjustment of isoniazid or pyrazinamide is required during co-administration with SIRTURO®.
In a placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with MDR-TB, no major impact of co-administration of SIRTURO® on the pharmacokinetics of ethambutol, kanamycin, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin or cycloserine was observed.
Although clinical data in HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients on the combined use of lopinavir (400 mg)/ritonavir (100 mg) with SIRTURO® are not available, use SIRTURO® with caution when co-administered with lopinavir/ritonavir and only if the benefit outweighs the risk.
No dosage adjustment of SIRTURO® is required when co-administered with nevirapine.
Concomitant administration of SIRTURO® and efavirenz, or other moderate CYP3A inducers, should be avoided.
In a drug interaction study of SIRTURO® and ketoconazole, a greater effect on QTc was observed after repeated dosing with SIRTURO® and ketoconazole in combination than after repeated dosing with the individual drugs. Additive or synergistic QT prolongation was observed when SIRTURO® was co-administered with other drugs that prolong the QT interval.
In Study 3, mean increases in QTc were larger in the 17 subjects who were taking clofazimine with SIRTURO® at Week 24 (mean change from reference of 31.9 ms) than in subjects who were not taking clofazimine with bedaquiline at Week 24 (mean change from baseline of 12.3 ms). Monitor ECGs if SIRTURO® is co-administered to patients receiving other drugs that prolong the QTc interval, and discontinue SIRTURO® if evidence of serious ventricular arrhythmia, or QTcF interval greater than 500 ms.
SIRTURO® (bedaquiline) is a diarylquinoline antimycobacterial drug indicated as part of combination therapy in the treatment of adults (≥18 years) with pulmonary multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). Reserve SIRTURO® for use when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be provided. Administer SIRTURO® by directly observed therapy (DOT).
This indication is approved under accelerated approval based on time to sputum culture conversion. Continued approval for this indication may be contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials.
Do not use SIRTURO® for the treatment of:
The safety and efficacy of SIRTURO® in the treatment of HIV-infected patients with MDR-TB have not been established as clinical data are limited.
An increased risk of death was seen in the SIRTURO® treatment group. The imbalance in deaths is unexplained. No discernible pattern between death and sputum culture conversion, relapse, sensitivity to other drugs used to treat tuberculosis, HIV status, or severity of disease could be observed. Only use SIRTURO® when an effective treatment regimen cannot otherwise be provided.
SIRTURO® prolongs the QT interval. Obtain an ECG before initiation of treatment, and at least 2, 12, and 24 weeks after starting treatment with SIRTURO®. Obtain serum potassium, calcium, and magnesium at baseline and correct if abnormal. Monitor electrolytes if QT prolongation is detected.
SIRTURO® has not been studied in patients with ventricular arrhythmias or recent myocardial infarction.
The following may increase the risk for QT prolongation when patients are receiving SIRTURO®: use with other QT prolonging drugs including fluoroquinolones and macrolide antibacterial drugs and the antimycobacterial drug, clofazimine; a history of Torsade de Pointes; a history of congenital long QT syndrome; a history of or ongoing hypothyroidism; a history of or ongoing bradyarrhythmias; a history of uncompensated heart failure; serum calcium, magnesium, or potassium levels below the lower limits of normal
If necessary, bedaquiline treatment initiation could be considered in these patients after a favorable benefit risk assessment and with frequent ECG monitoring.
Discontinue SIRTURO® and all other QT prolonging drugs if the patient develops clinically significant ventricular arrhythmia or a QTcF interval of greater than 500 ms (confirmed by repeat ECG).
If syncope occurs, obtain an ECG to detect QT prolongation.
More hepatic-related adverse drug reactions were reported with the use of SIRTURO® plus other drugs to treat tuberculosis compared to other drugs used to treat tuberculosis without the addition of SIRTURO®. Alcohol and other hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided while on SIRTURO®, especially in patients with impaired hepatic function.
Monitor symptoms (such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, jaundice, dark urine, liver tenderness, and hepatomegaly) and laboratory tests (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin) at baseline, monthly while on treatment, and as needed. Test for viral hepatitis and discontinue other hepatotoxic medications if evidence of new or worsening liver dysfunction occurs. Discontinue SIRTURO® if:
CYP3A4 Inducers/Inhibitors: Bedaquiline is metabolized by CYP3A4 and its systemic exposure and therapeutic effect may therefore be reduced during co-administration with inducers of CYP3A4. Avoid coadministration of strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifamycins (i.e., rifampin, rifapentine, and rifabutin) or moderate CYP3A4 inducers such as efavirenz. Co-administration of SIRTURO® with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase the systemic exposure to bedaquiline, which could potentially increase the risk of adverse reactions. Therefore, avoid the use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors used for more than 14 consecutive days while on SIRTURO®, unless the benefit of treatment with the drug combination outweighs the risk. Appropriate clinical monitoring for SIRTURO®-related adverse reactions is recommended.
Adverse reactions that occurred more frequently than placebo during treatment with SIRTURO® included: nausea (38% vs. 32%), arthralgia (33% vs. 22%), headache (28% vs. 12%), hemoptysis (18% vs. 11%), chest pain (11% vs. 7%), anorexia (9% vs. 4%), transaminases increased (9% vs. 1%), rash (8% vs. 4%), and blood amylase increased (3% vs. 1%).